Arabesken uit Herkenrode
Piet Swimberghe - page 4
Recently a hitherto unknown fragment of the Herkenrode floor came to light. This section provides new data about Antwerp majolica.
The floor at Herkenrode is not of pure Italian inspiration since north Italian painters were following models from the Levant: Asia Minor and Persia. Only the circle band tiles, in reality tondi, hark back to Antiquity. They are based on the alla porzellana design inspired by Chinese porcelain, whose motifs clearly influenced the art of the Near East and North Africa. The pattern with hexagonal motifs occurs on a 15th-century Koran. These Arabic bookbindings influenced Renaissance artists. Levantine motifs appear in the work of Serlio, among others, who is thought to have been a source of inspiration for many majolica painters. The hexagonal tiles in the Herkenrode floor are closely related to Iznik tiles of the 15th century. They were presumably used as a border round the floor at Herkenrode, which may indicate that they are the same age as the polychrome tiles with the wavy flower loops.
A comparison with a tile from the floor of the château at Fère-en-Tardenois (France) shows differences as well as similarities with the floor at Herkenrode Abbey. The firing errors are the same, but the painting technique is different. The warrior tile may be seen as evidence of the Antwerp provenance of the floor at Fère: a Dutch museum possesses a tile that depicts an identical warrior and also has corners with small lines that fan out, just like the tiles at Herkenrode.
Lida Brouwer-Brand - page 15
The Golden Age in the Dutch Republic is a period of wealth and prosperity. Although in the early decades of the 17th century the austere Spanish fashion continues to set the tone, there is a gradual shift towards looser and lighter clothing. This is noticeable, too, in women's head gear. The severe winged bonnet, which almost completely conceals the hair, changes to a more frivolous head covering: the so-called boogje (curve or bow) with a turned-up brim at the front. This curved brim gets drawn further and further back, thus revealing more and more of the hair. The damsels of the period exploit this in a variety of ways. They wear ringlets on either side of the face, or corkscrew curls, and trim their bonnets with ribbons and jewels. This trend reaches its peak during the reign of Louis XIV, and eventually the bonnet disappears altogether.
De haan en de papegaai op bloemvaastableaus
Wilhelm Joliet - page 22
The earliest date for the production of large tile pictures of a flower vase can be fixed at about 1688 from the colour prints of the cock and the parrot by Johan Teyler. This refutes the view of Robert Danis and those who follow him that the tile pictures in the Trianon de Porcelaine can be dated prior to 1673. Consequently, the pictures at the chateau of Rambouillet cannot have been moved there from the Trianon de Porcelaine.
The building specifications of the Residenz in Munich, the chateau at Rambouillet, the orphanage at Sommelsdijk and the Amalienburg in the grounds of Nymphenburg show that all these pictures must be dated in the 1720s.
The numbering on the back of the picture tiles from Sommelsdijk, now in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, and the one in the Landesmuseum at Oldenburg, points to Rotterdam as the place of manufacture.
Further research is needed to find documentary proof for the supply of large flower vase tile pictures with cock and parrot.
De bijbeltegels in het Arsip Nasional in Jakarta
dr. Hans Bonke - page 32
In about 1760 Reinier de Klerk (governor-general of the Dutch East Indies from 1777 to 1780) had a country house built outside the city of Batavia (Jakarta).
In 1900 the government bought the house, which had served as an orphanage since 1844, and thus saved it from demolition. From 1925 it housed the National Archives. After Indonesia's Independance in 1945 it continued to be used as Arsip Nasional (National Archives). In the 1990s the Archives were moved to a new building and the old one fell into disrepair. To mark the 50th anniversary of the former colony's independance, the country house was restored between 1995 and 1998 as a gift to Indonesia from the Dutch nation.
The two-storey building is the last remaining example of early colonial country house architecture. On the ground floor 828 tiles were applied to form a plinth. All but two are purple bible tiles. In the latter half of the 18th century the Dutch East India Company purchased both white and purple bible tiles as well as blue landscape tiles for export to Asia. According to some writers the tiles in the Reinier de Klerk House were made in China from Dutch models. However, dimensions, material, painting technique and colour make it plain that the provenance is Dutch. Certain details, such as the stained-glass windows in the design and the shape of the ox-head corner motifs, indicate a factory in Rotterdam.
Prent en tegel
dr. Arend Jan Gierveld - page 42
The systematic search for prints used as models for the early tiles (before 1650) is not very productive. Finding graphic originals of sponsen (pricked stencils) for the earlier tiles is a matter of luck, especially in the case of tile designs that are not part of a series with a single picture type. This article illustrates several lucky finds.
Not all prints in a popular series served as models for the tile painter. Only a few of the numerous circular emblems in a very popular work by the Dutch poet Cats, for instance, appear to have been used. Nor is it certain whether all the 'master' sponsen were made at the tile factory or bought from artists who designed them specially for the tile painters.
By no means all tile designs were based on prints; the early tile painters will probably have produced original work as well.
Transplantatie-Restauratie van vier zeldzame vierpastegels
dr. ir. J.J. van der Eyk - page 49
At the Netherlands Tile Museum four rare 17th century ornamental quatrefoil tiles have been restored. From ten fragments one complete, but damaged tile (fig.1) and three partial ones were reconstructed. Xerox copies of five extra shards were fitted into the gaps in the partials, delineated, cut out and glued onto their own shard (fig.2, 3, 4). The covered parts were sawn out, the xerox scraped off and the trimmed pieces fixed into the gaps. All remaining voids were filled with polyester resin (fig.5). The missing decoration was painted on with colour enamels. The four restored tiles were assembled onto multiplex (where needed levelled on felt cushions), leaving a plexiglass control window and fitted with a white plastic frame (fig.6, 7). In the case of such rare material as this, the described transplantation procedure is considered a legitimate restoration technique.
Jugendstil tegels van de Amsterdamse plateelfabriek De Distel - Deel 2
Karel Nijkerk - page 53
This second article in a series of three about Art Nouveau tiles produced by the pottery works 'De Distel' (The Thistle) in Amsterdam (1895-1923) focuses on tiles used in interior decoration. De Distel executed numerous commissions in Amsterdam, but their technically and artistically high quality products are also found in other locations in the Netherlands. The author deals with the following categories: tiled shop interiors, tile pictures in porches, wainscoting, advertisements, and commemorative pictures.
Bibliography 1998 - 1999