Een Antwerps tapijt ... of het verhaal van twee aansluitende tegels.
Frans Caignie and Tony Oost - page 2
One corner of the tile on photo 1, from the collection of Museum Vleeshuis in Antwerp, shows a circle band that is part of a medallion. The blue streaks, probably clouds, suggest a representation inside the medallion. The other corner shows parts of geometrical figures, which link up perfectly with identical figures on a second tile from the collection (photo 2).
A tile field can be reconstructed logically in terms of colour and geometry, with the medallions placed like rugs on a floor. A first attempt at a reconstruction was not successful (fig.6), but a second one was (fig. 10). Various elements are missing, and therefore the reconstruction is open to doubt. Nevertheless, it allows one to form some idea of late 16th century tile decoration. The discovery of a tile or tile fragment from the same family may either confirm this reconstruction or point to an entirely different configuration .
De opbouw van de oudste tegelpilasters
dr. J.H. van den Berge - page 13
In Rotterdam tile pilasters for open fireplaces were produced between circa 1625 and 1660. They replaced the sandstone caryatids which had originally supported the top of the fireplace. No complete early tile pilasters are known. In this article an attempt is made to reconstruct the prototype of the earliest pilasters by studying individual pilaster tiles and pilaster fragments with several consecutive tiles.
The pilasters were usually blue. They were one tile in width and, normally, thirteen tiles in height. Although there were slight variations, it seems probable that they always occurred in pairs: a male and a female pilaster. With the aid of the numbers and letters on the back of the tiles, it was possible to distinguish four different types.
Verscheydene aerdige boeren en boerinnen
Kitty Laméris en Jan Holtkamp - page 27
Thirteen tiles with a portrait in an oval border are known. On the basis of slight differences in the design they can be divided into three groups. Although it is impossible to establish the place of manufacture, it is remarkable that the tiles and shards found in Amsterdam are all of the same type (see ill.1).
Recent research has shown that they are copied from portraits of peasants’ physiognomies by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c. 1525-1569). Both A. Brouwer (died in 1640) and Claes Jansz Visscher (c. 1587-1652) made prints of these faces, which appeared in 1642 and 1658 respectively. As the tiles are dated between 1620 and 1640, they must have been based on an earlier series or on the originals by Bruegel. One of the series by Visscher has names over the prints. Thus we can also give names to the tile portraits. They are derisive nicknames, which do not refer to real people but to certain types.
Nederlandse tegels in Algiers tijdens het Turks Regentschap (1518-1830)
Jean Couranjou (translation: Frans Caignie) - page 36
After its capture round 1516 by the Turkish pirate Arudj Barbarossa, the town of Algiers comes under Turkish rule. Several architectural jewels, most of them constructed after the earthquake of 1716, with interiors sumptuously decorated with Dutch tiles, have survived. Under French rule (1830-1962), as a result of successive modernisations in the old town, a large number of tiles were moved to newer buildings. For thirty-five years Jean Couranjou (Villeneuve d’Ornou, France) has studied tiles in Algeria, both Dutch tiles and those produced elsewhere, and set down his findings in a forthcoming book. The Dutch tiles are easily distinguishable from the other tiles on account of their blue or purple colour. Jean Couranjou includes among the earlier types: flower vase with ox-head corner motif, ship with ox-heads, landscape in circle with spiders, triple tulip in accolades with a three-dot corner motif, but also polychrome birds with ox-heads. The blue tiles with children’s games and spider motif probably come from Jewish homes, as Islam prohibits pictures of living creatures. Among later types scenic as well as ornamental designs are found.
Noteworthy is the great number of tiles with sailing boats at full tilt and spider motif, but also the same type of sailing boat in a circle with a carnation as corner motif, which is unknown in the Netherlands.
Several palaces boast rococo tile pictures comprising 12 tiles representing a flower vase, some signed J. v. M., others J. van Maak, which were made specially for Algiers. J. van Maak used to work in Amsterdam and through this article it is known for the first time that the initials J.V. M. stand for J. van Maak. Even today the Dutch tile contributes to the decoration of the ancient Berber town of Algiers, thus making it into a living and tremendously varied tile museum.
Een tegeltableau ter gelegenheid van een huwelijk
F.H. Landzaat - page 42
This early 19th century purple tile picture of a bakery contains a text indicating that the people concerned are "egteliede" - a married couple.
They started a bakery in the village of Westbroek, in the province of Utrecht, in the year 1826.
On the hypothesis that the buyer purchased the tile picture locally, the author does not rule out the possibility that this tilepicture was produced in Utrecht on the occasion of their marriage.
Although tile pictures often do not carry age indiction, the small flower edge and the way of doing the wording confirm the period around 1825.
Jugendstil tegels van de Amsterdamse Plateelfabriek De Distel - Deel 1
Karel Nijkerk- page 43
In 1895 the pottery works ‘De Distel' (The Thistle) was established in Amsterdam by J.M. Lob. From the start he was able to attract a number of accomplished ceramists and young artists, including Bert Nienhuis, W.G.F. Jansen, Cornelis de Bruin, Tjeerd Bottema and Willem van Norden. In 1901 the small pottery ‘Lotus', also in Amsterdam, was taken over. In 1910 De Distel purchased the stock and the rights for pottery manufacture from Amstelhoek. These acquisitions increased the company's know-how. Following the Lotus takeover, for example, the gifted designer and innovator Nienhuis was appointed head of the decoration department at De Distel. Earthenware with opaque glaze on an ivory-coloured body decorated with a variety of geometric motifs became a speciality. The company produced ornamental vases, cachepots, wall plates with maxims etc., but above all tiles and tile pictures in predominantly Art Nouveau decors.
Between 1900 and 1913 the company won twelve international awards at various exhibitions.
Little is known about the factory, as the company records have been lost. For instance, it is not known whether the company made a certain quantity of biscuit tiles itself, or in fact ordered all of them from abroad.
In 1923 the factory was sold to Koninklijke Hollandsche Pijpen- en Aardewerkfabrieken (Royal Dutch Pipe and Pottery Works) in Gouda, and now only a few vase forms made by this company, currently named Royal Goedewaagen, remind one of De Distel.
De Distel's products included single tiles depicting local costume, but the large tile pictures decorating the exteriors of buildings are undoubtedly of greater artistic merit (ill. 5,6,7,8).
Part two of this article, to appear in September 1999 in Tegel 27, will focus on De Distel tiles used architecturally, both on the outside and inside of houses, offices and shops. It will also highlight the so-called carduus (Latin=thistle) tiles and the tiles in sgraffito technique.